History 160 teaches the fundamental methods for strategic analysis of violence and war. Strategic analysis is very much like economic analysis: it helps you make sense of the world, current events, and history. But unlike economic analysis it is rarely taught. This course is based on the celebrated survey offered at the U.S. Naval War College, Newport, R.I. (a graduate school for military officers of all service, diplomats, intelligence officers and others, both American and from 44 foreign countries) where Professor Waldron taught before coming to Penn. Only two other Ivy League institutions offer courses taught by professors having this rigorous background. History 160 introduces the principles of strategic analysis in four ways. First, we consider the nature of human violence by examining the phenomenon of football hooliganism in Britain. Second, we compare and contrast two of the greatest analysts of war and strategists, namely: Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831) and Sun Zi 孫子(544-496 B.C.E.) Third, we examine four distinct approaches to the waging of war by analyzing four campaigns: the Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.E.); the Second Punic War [the War of Rome and Hannibal] (218-201 B.C.E.); the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815) and the Wars of German Unification (1864-1871). Then, fourth, after a brief bridging survey of World War I (1914-1918) and World War II (1939-1945) we turn to the last sixty years, our purpose being to reach the wars closest to our students, which are narrated and analyzed in considerable detail using the intellectual tools already prepared in the first part of the course. These wars are in Vietnam (1955-1975), in Iraq (2003-2010) and in Afghanistan (2001-present). Stress will be placed on classroom analysis and discussion of the courses of these three major and recent conflicts. We will also host an optional war game. Requirements: Attendance at lectures, a short response paper (3-5 pages; 20%); a longer (8-12 page course paper due when classes end; 30%); an in-class midterm examination (20%) and standard final examination (December 18; 30%). This course presupposes no previous knowledge so it is suitable for freshmen. But the material should be of interest to all, including graduate students who may obtain credit for it (consult the instructor).
Day and Time: 
TR 1200PM-0130PM
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